Demography is the analysis of human communities from statistics. The concept comes from a compound Greek word that can be translated as “description of the people”. This discipline studies the size, stratification and development of a community, from a quantitative perspective.
For demography, the population is a group of people linked by reproductive ties that can be identified by cultural, social, geographic, political or other particularities. The population, therefore, has continuity in time, although it is not eternal.
From this definition, we can understand that demography is the social science that is responsible for analyzing the processes that determine the creation, maintenance and eventual disappearance of populations. Notions such as fertility, mobility and mortality are key to demography, since they determine the structure of each population.
Demography studies characteristics of a community from statistics.
Origins of demographics
The Arab statesman and sociologist Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) is considered a pioneer in the field of demography. He was the one who began to collect statistical information to study populations and generate new data from these statistics.
The British John Graunt (1620-1674) and Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) also made great contributions to the development of demography.
Demography provides useful information when designing public policies.
Birth and death rates and migratory movements
Birth and death rates and population movements are part of the basic studies of demography, whose work is very important for the development of State policies.
From demographic data, for example, it is possible to know which are the main public health problems or which regions of a country are economically relegated.
Types of demographics
Within this social science there are various branches, they respond to the following names: general demography (investigates the theories that exist around demography and the research methodologies used), geographic demography (checks the mobility of populations: migrations, new settlements, etc), historical demography (studies issues related to fertility, mortality rate and migrations that occur within a group), fertility (which is responsible for analyzing the birth and marriage rates and the fertility of the population) and mortality (studies the rateof mortality of a group in general and the causes and age of deaths in particular, trying to relate the various variables).
To carry out demographic studies , various censuses are carried out with the aim of extracting relevant information about the state of the population being studied: number of occupied dwellings, number of people living in each one, illnesses, deaths in the last year in each family, migrations, etc.
The results of these analyzes will not only allow us to know the current size of the population, but also the risks to which they are exposed and can help find solutions or prevent lethal consequences such as plagues, famines or accidents.
There are two types of study methods within this social science:
* Composite method: It involves combining different study techniques that allow reaching an approximate conclusion of the conditions in which the population studied is found. One of these techniques can be, for example, school enrollment. Researchers can have an approximate notion of the changes that the population has suffered from one year to another in the sector of the group that is of school age, in this way they could know the number of minor inhabitants and verify the migrations that have taken place. suffered the population in the last year of young people of school age.
* Statistical methods: They are the most accurate because they are made from obtaining specific data, collected from censuses. Through statistical theories, the changes indicated in the census results can be related and information can be obtained on the conditions in which the population is found at the time of carrying out said analysis.
Browse population and biggest city by country or region
In order to know the meaning of the term population density, first of all, we are going to proceed to discover the etymological origin of the two main words that give it shape:
– Density derives from the Latin, specifically, from “densitas”, which can be translated as “dense quality”. It is the result of the sum of two components: the adjective “densus”, which means “dense”, and the suffix “-dad”, which is used to indicate “quality”.
– Population, on the other hand, also comes from Latin. In his case, it is the result of the union of the noun “populus”, which is synonymous with “people”, and the suffix “-cion”, which is used to indicate “action and effect”.
The idea of population density is used to name the number of individuals that live per unit area. It is the average number of people in a region or country that exists in relation to a certain surface unit.
Population density refers to the number of inhabitants per unit area.
Popuation of 50 States in the United States
How population density is measured
In general, population density refers to the average number of subjects residing in a square kilometer of territory. The calculation formula to obtain the population density consists of dividing the total population by the territorial area.
If 40,000 people live in a city that has an area of 10 square kilometers, the population density of said locality is 4,000 inhabitants / square kilometer. This means that, on average, 4,000 people live in each square kilometer of surface.
When population density is high, available resources are often scarce.
Differences according to the area
Urban areas usually have a higher population density than rural areas. This is due to the fact that in urban areas it is usually built in height (buildings), while in rural regions most of the land is used for cultivation or livestock.
The smallest countries, on the other hand, tend to be those with the highest population density: the lack of territory means that the inhabitants have to live very close to each other. In countries with a larger area, the distances are usually greater.
Among the countries with the highest population density we find Singapore, Macao, Barbados, Malta, Bangladesh, Maldives or Monaco. In contrast, those with a lower population density include Mongolia, Australia, Iceland, Namibia, Suriname, Botswana, Canada, Guyana, Mauritania, and Libya.
From high to low population density
The main problems faced by territories with a high population density are the scarcity of resources, the difficulty in finding everything from housing to a job, going through marginalization or crime, for example.
The causes of low population density in some areas may be due to their meteorological conditions, that is, to the climate. However, another compelling reason may be the lack of resources they have both at the level of work and food.
Continents in the World
Capital Cities by Continent
A continent (Latin terra continens “contiguous land”) is a closed mainland mass. In many languages, the word for continent is also derived from the Latin continens. In German there is also the term continent.
The Trackaah defines the term continent as “any of the larger contiguous land masses ” and as such designates in order of size Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia. Today, different divisions of the continents are common in geography and geology. For historical and cultural reasons, Europe in particular is often counted as a separate continent, although geographically speaking it is actually part of theis the great continent of Eurasia. In addition, Australia and Oceania as well as America are sometimes counted as contiguous continents.
With an area of around 148 million square kilometers, the continents cover a total of 29.3 percent of the earth’s surface. The rest is made up of seas and islands.